Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Introduced

V. odorata L.

ENGLISH VIOLET

Plant 6–24 cm from rhizome 5–20 mm diam, spreading by long, leafy stolons, finely hairy
Stem 0
Leaves basal, simple; petiole 20–170 mm; blade 15–60 mm, widely ovate-cordate, ± toothed, thick, leathery, base cordate, tip obtuse
Inflorescence: peduncle 20–150 mm
Flower: petals deep violet with white base or white with violet spur, lowest (including spur) < 20 mm
Fruit 5–8 mm, puberulent, purple
Chromosomes: n=10
Ecology: Generally disturbed places
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: e US; native to Eurasia
Uncommonly naturalized.

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bioregional map for VIOLA%20odorata being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Viola odorata
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