Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. lobata Benth.

PINE VIOLET

Plant 5–46 cm
Stem erect from spreading or erect rhizome
Leaves simple; basal 0–2, petiole 50–215 mm; cauline only near stem tip, petiole generally 10–50 mm, blade 15–150 mm wide, reniform, deltate, ovate, or diamond-shaped, entire to dissected, segments entire to toothed, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous
Inflorescence: peduncles only from upper axils, 20–130 mm
Flower: petals yellow, all or lower 3 veined purple-brown toward base, lowest (including spur) 8–19 mm, deep yellow, lateral 2 yellow-bearded, upper 2 purple to brown-purple outside
Fruit 6–16 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=6
Ecology: Dry, shaded or open woodlands
Elevation: 150–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: s Oregon, n Baja California

Native

subsp. lobata


Leaves: cauline blade generally wider than long, generally reniform to ± ovate or deltate, palmate-lobed or -dissected, lobes or segments 3–12, fine- or coarse-serrate to generally entire
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 150–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Peninsular Ranges
Synonyms: subsp. psychodes (Greene) Munz
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SHD: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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