Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.



R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]



Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.


V. lobata Benth.


Plant 5–46 cm
Stem erect from spreading or erect rhizome
Leaves simple; basal 0–2, petiole 50–215 mm; cauline only near stem tip, petiole generally 10–50 mm, blade 15–150 mm wide, reniform, deltate, ovate, or diamond-shaped, entire to dissected, segments entire to toothed, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous
Inflorescence: peduncles only from upper axils, 20–130 mm
Flower: petals yellow, all or lower 3 veined purple-brown toward base, lowest (including spur) 8–19 mm, deep yellow, lateral 2 yellow-bearded, upper 2 purple to brown-purple outside
Fruit 6–16 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=6
Ecology: Dry, shaded or open woodlands
Elevation: 150–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: s Oregon, n Baja California


subsp. lobata

Leaves: cauline blade generally wider than long, generally reniform to ± ovate or deltate, palmate-lobed or -dissected, lobes or segments 3–12, fine- or coarse-serrate to generally entire
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 150–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Peninsular Ranges
Synonyms: subsp. psychodes (Greene) Munz
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SHD: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18; DFCLT.

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bioregional map for VIOLA%20lobata%20subsp.%20lobata being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Viola lobata subsp. lobata
Retrieve dichotomous key for Viola
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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