Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. douglasii Steud.

DOUGLAS VIOLET

Plant 4–20 cm
Stems erect, clustered on short, erect rhizome
Leaves basal and cauline, odd-2-pinnate (dissected or compound); petiole < 60 mm; blade < 50 mm, ovate, 1° divisions 3–7, segments 1–5 mm wide, linear-elliptic, glabrous to puberulent
Inflorescence: peduncle 20–125 mm
Flower: petals golden-yellow, veined dark, lowest (including spur) 8–21 mm, upper 2 brown to very dark outside
Fruit 5–12 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=12,24
Ecology: Vernally moist, grassy slopes and flats, often serpentine
Elevation: 150–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Cleistogamous flowers 0
Horticultural information: DRN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 14, 18 &SUN: 15, 16, 17; DFCLT.

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bioregional map for VIOLA%20douglasii being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Viola douglasii
Retrieve dichotomous key for Viola
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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