Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. beckwithii Torr. & A. Gray

GREAT BASIN VIOLET

Plant 6–22 cm
Stems clustered on short, erect rhizome, glabrous to puberulent
Leaves basal and cauline, 1-ternate; petiole < 80 mm; blade < 50 mm, deltate to ovate, ± fleshy, leaflets dissected, segments ± linear to lanceolate
Inflorescence: peduncle 20–120 mm
Flower: lowest petal (including spur) 10–18 mm, lower 3 bluish to white, veined dark red-violet, base with yellow area, upper 2 dark red-violet
Fruit 7–12 mm, glabrous
Ecology: Dry places, often among shrubs
Elevation: 900–2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Utah
Synonyms: subsp. glabrata M.S. Baker
Cleistogamous flowers 0
Horticultural information: DRN: 1, 6, 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 2, 3, 7, 18; DFCLT.

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