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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]



Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.


V. sororia Willd. subsp. affinis (Le Conte) R.J. Little


Plant 3–25 cm from short thick rhizome with long fibrous roots, ± glabrous
Stem 0
Leaves basal, simple; petiole 50–230 mm; blade 10–45 mm, generally widely ovate to reniform, toothed, tip acute to obtuse
Inflorescence: peduncle 50–250 mm
Flower: petals deep blue-violet, lowest (including spur) 10–19 mm (spur ± 3 mm, as wide as long), lower 3 dark-veined, white-bearded
Fruit 5–10 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=27
Ecology: Shady, moist ground
Elevation: 300–2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada
Flowering time: May–Jun
Synonyms: V. nephrophylla Greene
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; occasionally. INV.

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