Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. primulifolia L. subsp. occidentalis (A. Gray) L.E. McKinney & R.J. Little

WESTERN BOG VIOLET

Plant 8–19 cm from spreading or erect rhizomes, producing thin late-season stolons, glabrous
Stem 0
Leaves basal, simple; petiole 30–110 mm; blade 15–70 mm, elliptic to widely ovate, crenate, base tapered, tip acute or rounded
Inflorescence: peduncle 40–165 mm
Flower: petals white, lowest (including spur) 10–14 mm, lower 3 veined purple, lateral 2 heavily bearded
Fruit 5–8 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=12
Ecology: Darlingtonia marshes, bogs
Elevation: 100–500 m.
Bioregional distribution: nw Klamath Ranges (near Gasquet, Del Norte Co.)
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Synonyms: V. lanceolata L. subsp. o. (A. Gray) N. Russell
Cleistogamous flowers 0
Horticultural information: In cultivation.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for VIOLA%20primulifolia%20subsp.%20occidentalis being generated
 


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