Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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VERBENACEAE

VERVAIN FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to tree, generally hairy
Leaves cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower
Flower bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5, epipetalous (if 4, generally in unequal pairs); ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2-chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral
Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule
Genera in family: ± 90 genera, ± 1900 species: especially Am tropical. Some cultivated (Clerodendron , Lantana , Verbena , Vitex ); some weedy worldwide (Lantana ); some used for wood (Tectona , teak).

VERBENA

Annual to shrub
Stems often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff
Leaves reduced upward; blade entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: spikes, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally very long in fruit
Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, ± radial to bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4, paired; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong
Species in genus: ± 250 species: temp, tropical Am, Medit Eur
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Umber 1979 Syst Bot 4:72–102; Barber 1982 Syst Bot 7:433–456]

Introduced

V. litoralis Kunth

Biennial or perennial herb 40–150+ cm
Stems 1–few, erect, glabrous to sparsely short-bristly; angles smooth to scabrous
Leaf 3–10 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, irregularly serrate, sparsely short-bristly; base ± acute; petiole ± 0
Inflorescence: spikes (1)3–11 per cluster, 3–7 cm in fruit, 3–4 mm diam, dense to open below; flower bract 3–3.5 mm
Flower: calyx 3–3.5 mm; corolla 4–5.5 mm, violet to purplish
Fruit 1–1.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=28,56
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley
Distribution outside California: to s US, Pacific; native to C.America, S.America
Synonyms: V. brasiliensis Vell

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bioregional map for VERBENA%20litoralis being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Verbena litoralis
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