Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VERBENACEAE

VERVAIN FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to tree, generally hairy
Leaves cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower
Flower bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5, epipetalous (if 4, generally in unequal pairs); ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2-chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral
Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule
Genera in family: ± 90 genera, ± 1900 species: especially Am tropical. Some cultivated (Clerodendron , Lantana , Verbena , Vitex ); some weedy worldwide (Lantana ); some used for wood (Tectona , teak).

VERBENA

Annual to shrub
Stems often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff
Leaves reduced upward; blade entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: spikes, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally very long in fruit
Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4–5-lobed, ± radial to bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4, paired; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with ± spheric stigma
Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong
Species in genus: ± 250 species: temp, tropical Am, Medit Eur
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Umber 1979 Syst Bot 4:72–102; Barber 1982 Syst Bot 7:433–456]

Native

V. californica Moldenke

CALIFORNIA VERVAIN

Biennial or perennial herb, 30–75 cm
Stems generally 1–3, decumbent to erect, ± canescent
Leaf sessile or ± clasping, 2–9 cm, elliptic to oblanceolate, entire to irregularly and obtusely toothed, ± canescent, tapered to truncate base
Inflorescence: spikes 1–3(5) per stem branch, 10–24 cm in fruit, 5–10 mm diam; open in fruit (fruits not overlapping); flower bract 3.5–4 mm
Flower: calyx 4–4.5 mm; corolla 2.5–3.5 mm, violet to purplish
Fruit ± 2 mm
Ecology: Wet places, seeps, generally serpentine soils, pine/oak woodland
Elevation: 300–400 m.
Bioregional distribution: c Sierra Nevada Foothills (Tuolumne Co.).
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for VERBENA%20californica being generated
 


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