Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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VERBENACEAE

VERVAIN FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to tree, generally hairy
Leaves cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0
Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower
Flower bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5, epipetalous (if 4, generally in unequal pairs); ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2-chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral
Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule
Genera in family: ± 90 genera, ± 1900 species: especially Am tropical. Some cultivated (Clerodendron , Lantana , Verbena , Vitex ); some weedy worldwide (Lantana ); some used for wood (Tectona , teak).

AVICENNIA

RED MANGROVE

Shrub, tree; roots branches spreading, exposed at low tide
Leaves persistent, petioled; blade thick, entire
Inflorescence head-like, clusters terminal; bractlets 3, generally < calyx, outer 1 > inner 2
Flower: sepals 5, fused at base; corolla 4-lobed, radial, rotate; stamens 4, attached at 1 level; ovary generally 1-chambered, ovules generally 4 per chamber, style not lobed, stigma ± spheric, terminal
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp, subtropical worldwide, generally coastal marshes, lagoons
Etymology: (Avicenna, Persian physician and philosopher, 980–1037)

Introduced

A. marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G. Forst.) Bakh.

Shrub < 2.5 m
Stem: trunk < 10 cm
Leaf 4–11 cm, elliptic to ovate, leathery; upper surface ± shiny, lower felt-like
Inflorescence: clusters generally 3 per branch; flowers 4–9 per cluster; peduncles 2–4 cm; bractlets ± ovate
Flower: perianth lobes ± ovate, leathery, puberulent outside
Fruit ± 2 cm diam, ovoid
Ecology: Coastal salt marsh
Elevation: ± 0 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.)
Distribution outside California: native to New Zealand, Australasia
First planted in 1960's, becoming weedy, extirpation attempted, but plants persistent in 1990
Reference: [Moran 1980 Madroño 27:143]

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