Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VALERIANACEAE

VALERIAN FAMILY

Lauramay T. Dempster (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes strongly scented; odor generally disagreeable
Leaves simple, pinnately lobed, or compound; petioles sometimes sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile
Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense
Flowers generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary top, limb 0 or highly modified (if present, lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, becoming plumose, pappus-like, spreading in fruit); corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, epipetalous; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1 (sometimes 3 but 2 empty or vestigial)
Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged
Genera in family: ± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temp, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus ), some medicinal (Valeriana )
Reference: [Ferguson 1965 J Arnold Arbor 46:218–225]

PLECTRITIS

Fred R. Ganders

Annual, glabrous
Stem generally erect, 5–80 cm, generally angled, simple or few-branched
Leaves simple, basal and cauline, opposite, generally entire; basal short-petioled, spoon-shaped; cauline generally sessile, oblong, ovate, or obovate
Inflorescence clustered, head-like or interrupted spike, terminal
Flower: calyx 0; corolla 2-lipped to ± radial and funnel-shaped, white to dark pink, tube generally spurred at base; stamens 3
Fruit: achene; body ± triangular, 2–4 mm, strongly winged or not, wings lateral, wide, ± glabrous to densely hairy
Species in genus: 5 species: w North America, sw South America
Etymology: (Greek: spur)
Reference: [Morey 1962 PhD thesis, Stanford U]
Self-compatible; large-flowered taxa cross- and self-pollinated, small flowered taxa self-pollinated. Wing shape, color, hairiness vary in some species

Native

P. brachystemon Fisch. & C.A. Mey.


Flower: corolla 1.5–3.5 mm, uniformly white or pale pink, ± radial to slightly 2-lipped; spur slender, tip generally enlarged or spur reduced to minute swelling; undehisced anthers < 0.7 mm
Fruit: convex side of body keeled lengthwise, winged or not; wings hairy near tip or near margins, margin thin, not grooved lengthwise
Chromosomes: 2n=32
Ecology: Common. Coastal bluffs, open, partly shaded slopes
Elevation: < 1850 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Synonyms: P. anomala (A. Gray) Suksd. including var. gibbosa (Suksd.) Dyal; P. aphanoptera (A. Gray) Suksd.; P. congesta var. major (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Dyal; P. magna (Greene) Suksd. including var. nitida (A. Heller) Dyal; P. samolifolia (DC.) Hoeck including var. involuta (Suksd.) Dyal misapplied

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