Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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ULMACEAE

ELM FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken

Shrub or tree, often monoecious
Leaves simple, generally alternate, generally 2-ranked, short-petioled; stipules deciduous; blade base often oblique, veins pinnate
Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, axillary; flowers 1–few; bracts 0
Flower radial; sepals 4–6, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–6, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches generally 2
Fruit: drupe or winged nutlet
Genera in family: ± 15 genera, ± 150 species: temp to tropical; some cultivated for ornamental (Celtis , Ulmus , Zelkova ), some used for wood, fibers (especially Ulmus )
Reference: [Elias 1970 J Arnold Arbor 51:18–40]
Recent taxonomic note: Celtis recently treated in Celtidaceae [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Wiegrefe & Sytsma 1998 Plant Syst Evol 210:249–270]

ULMUS

ELM

Shrub or tree
Stem: trunk bark scaly to furrowed, gray to brown
Leaf serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, obtuse to cordate
Inflorescence sessile to short-stalked
Flower bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 5–9; stamens 5–9, exserted; style branches spreading
Fruit: nutlet, compressed, clearly winged
Species in genus: ± 20 species: n temp; some widely cultivated (e.g. U. americana , american elm, U. X hollandica , dutch elm).

Introduced

U. minor Mill.

SMOOTH-LEAVED ELM, ENGLISH ELM

Tree generally < 10 m
Stem: twigs puberulent, becoming glabrous
Leaf: blade 4–8 cm, elliptic to widely ovate, margin sometimes doubly serrate, upper surface glabrous to ± scabrous, lower surface ± glabrous (except veins short-hairy) to short-soft-hairy
Inflorescence: flowers appearing before leaves in spring
Flower: calyx lobes short, ± equal
Fruit 10–20 mm, 8–12 mm wide; body 3–5 mm wide; wing translucent, whitish
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Waste places, canyons, as waif
Elevation: < 600 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to e US; native to s Europe, n Africa
Synonyms: U. procera Salisb
Cult; generally reproducing by root-sprouts.

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