Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Michael Nee

Annual to shrub
Leaves generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed
Inflorescence various
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1
Fruit: berry or capsule, 2–5-chambered
Genera in family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropical; many alien weeds in CA; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC.



Annual to shrub or vine, often glandular, sometimes prickly
Leaves alternate to subopposite, often unequal, entire to deeply pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: panicle or umbel-like, often 1-sided
Flower: calyx ± bell-shaped; corolla ± rotate, white to purple; anthers free, > filaments, oblong or tapered, opening by 2 pores or short slits near tip; ovary 2-chambered, style 1, stigma head-like
Fruit: berry, generally spheric (or dry, capsule-like)
Seeds many, compressed, generally reniform
Species in genus: ± 1500 species: worldwide, especially tropical Am
Etymology: (Latin: quieting, from narcotic properties)
Reference: [Symon 1981 J Adelaide Bot Gard 4:1–367]
Many cultivated for food (including potato, S. tuberosum ), ornamental; many TOXIC.


S. xanti A. Gray

Perennial to subshrub 4–9 dm, much-branched, ± hairy, sometimes glandular
Leaf 2–7 cm, lanceolate to ovate, ± entire to 1–2-lobed at base; base obtuse to subcordate
Inflorescence umbel-like, sometimes branched
Flower: calyx 4–5 mm; corolla 15–30 mm wide, dark blue or lavender, lobes < tube; anthers 4–5.5 mm
Fruit 10–15 mm diam, greenish
Seed 1.5–2 mm
Ecology: Shrubland, oak/pine woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Cascade Range, Great Central Valley), n Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Flowering time: Feb–Jun
Synonyms: vars. hoffmannii Munz (Hoffmann's nightshade), intermedium Parish, montanum Munz, obispoense (Eastw.) Wiggins (San Luis Obispo nightshade); S. tenuilobatum Parish (narrow-lvd nightshade)
Variation complex; may hybridize with S. parishii, S. umbelliferum
Horticultural information: DRN: 2, 3, 7, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 &SUN: 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24; CVS.

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