Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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SOLANACEAE

NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael Nee

Annual to shrub
Leaves generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed
Inflorescence various
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1
Fruit: berry or capsule, 2–5-chambered
Genera in family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropical; many alien weeds in CA; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC.

PHYSALIS

GROUND-CHERRY

Annual or rhizomed per; hairs sometimes branched
Leaves sometimes ± opposite, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers 1–few per axil, pedicelled
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, enlarged and persistent in fruit; corolla rotate to widely bell-shaped, yellowish, often dark-spotted inside; stamens 5, filaments inserted on hairy band in corolla tube, anthers free, generally < filaments, opening by slits; style generally straight
Fruit: berry
Seeds many, 2–2.5 mm, ± spheric to reniform
Species in genus: ± 85 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia
Etymology: (Greek: bladder, from calyx in fruit)
Reference: [Sullivan 1985 Syst Bot 10:426–444]
Some species cultivated for edible or ornamental fruit. Unripe fruit often TOXIC. Needs further study in w US.

Introduced

P. longifolia Nutt.

Perennial 2–6 dm, from rhizome; hairs simple, few, appressed
Leaf 4–7 cm, lanceolate to ± elliptic, petioled, generally entire (irregularly toothed)
Inflorescence: pedicels 6–15 mm, in fruit < 20 mm
Flower: calyx 9–10 mm, in fruit 25–35 mm, 10-veined; corolla 15–20 mm wide, bell-shaped, yellow with dark purple spots or veins at base; anthers 3–4 mm, bluish
Chromosomes: n=12
Ecology: Waste places, fields
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n High Cascade Range (Shasta Valley) as waif
Distribution outside California: native to c&e US
Synonyms: P. subglabrata Mack. & Bush misapplied to CA plants of this and possibly other species

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