Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SOLANACEAE

NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael Nee

Annual to shrub
Leaves generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed
Inflorescence various
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1
Fruit: berry or capsule, 2–5-chambered
Genera in family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropical; many alien weeds in CA; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC.

PHYSALIS

GROUND-CHERRY

Annual or rhizomed per; hairs sometimes branched
Leaves sometimes ± opposite, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers 1–few per axil, pedicelled
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, enlarged and persistent in fruit; corolla rotate to widely bell-shaped, yellowish, often dark-spotted inside; stamens 5, filaments inserted on hairy band in corolla tube, anthers free, generally < filaments, opening by slits; style generally straight
Fruit: berry
Seeds many, 2–2.5 mm, ± spheric to reniform
Species in genus: ± 85 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia
Etymology: (Greek: bladder, from calyx in fruit)
Reference: [Sullivan 1985 Syst Bot 10:426–444]
Some species cultivated for edible or ornamental fruit. Unripe fruit often TOXIC. Needs further study in w US.

Native

P. hederifolia A. Gray

Perennial or subshrub 1–8 dm, from fleshy rhizome; hairs sometimes branched or glandular
Leaf 2–4 cm, ovate, entire to coarsely toothed, generally gray-green; base tapered or subcordate
Inflorescence: pedicels 3–5(10) mm, in fruit < 15 mm
Flower: calyx 6–7 mm, in fruit 20–30 mm, ± spheric, with 10 green veins; corolla 10–15 mm, widely bell-shaped, yellow, generally with 5 purple-brown spots at base inside
Ecology: Gravelly to rocky slopes
Elevation: 700–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Peninsular Ranges, s East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Texas, n Mexico

Native

var. fendleri (A. Gray) Cronquist

Hairs generally branched, nonglandular
Chromosomes: n=12
Ecology: Habitats of sp
Elevation: 900–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: s East of Sierra Nevada (including Inyo Mtns), Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Texas, n Mexico
Flowering time: May–Jul
Synonyms: var. cordifolia (A. Gray) Waterf.; P. f. A. Gray

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