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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Margriet Wetherwax

Perennial, rhizomed
Stem: aerial part scapose
Leaves basal, petioled; blade ovate to round, cordate, serrate to shallowly pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: raceme; bracts < leaves, sessile, alternate
Flower: sepals 4, free; corolla bell-shaped to rotate, blue to lavender, lobes 4; stamens 2, exserted; stigmas fused, minutely head-like
Fruit loculicidal, plump, entire to notched
Seeds 2–many per chamber, flat or with incurved margins
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Species in genus: 14 species: w N Am
Etymology: (Greek: closing door, from fruit valves adhering to placenta)


S. missurica (Raf.) Pennell

Leaf: blade nearly round, cordate, glabrous, palmately veined
Inflorescence ± hairy; flowers generally many; peduncle < 60 cm, erect in fruit; pedicel in fruit 2–6 mm, < or = bracts; bracts ± oblanceolate
Flower: sepals 3–4 mm, linear to oblong, not ciliate; corolla 3–5 mm, ± rotate, blue to purplish, lobes > tube; style 4–5 mm
Fruit 5 mm, ± round, slightly notched, not ciliate
Seeds > 2 per chamber, flat, thinly winged, yellow-brown
Ecology: Moist cliffs, grassy forest openings
Elevation: 2000–2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to ne Washington, n Idaho
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN, SHD: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17; DFCLT.

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