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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Margriet Wetherwax

Perennial or shrub, long-soft-shaggy- and short-stout-glandular-hairy
Stem square
Leaves opposite, 4-ranked, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, petioled
Inflorescence: panicle; pedicels > bracts; bracts lanceolate, long-tapered
Flower: calyx lobes 5, obtuse to rounded; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, greenish yellow to blackish, tube urn-shaped to spheric, lowest lobe generally recurved; fertile stamens 4, included, anther sacs 1, staminode attached near base of upper lip, appressed to upper side of corolla; style slender, generally reflexed at flower, stigma head-like; nectary at base of ovary, fleshy
Fruit septicidal
Seeds many, oblong-ovoid, ridged
Species in genus: ± 150 species: n temp, especially Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin: scrofula, a disease supposedly cured by some species)


S. desertorum (Munz) R.J. Shaw

Perennial, minutely glandular
Stems clustered, 7–12 dm
Leaf: blade 10–13 cm, lanceolate, base wedge-shaped, narrowly acute, serrate; petiole 7–10 cm
Inflorescence long
Flower: calyx lobes 2–3 mm, triangular-ovate, obtuse to rounded; corolla 7–9 mm, ± spheric, upper half maroon, lower half cream, lowest lobe recurved; staminode club-shaped, longer than wide, light maroon, with 2 nectar drops generally conspicuous at base
Fruit 5–9 mm, ovoid, long-tapered
Ecology: Dry slopes
Elevation: 1000–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada, n Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: Nevada
Flowering time: Apr–Aug
Horticultural information: DFCLT.

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