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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Margriet Wetherwax

Perennial or shrub, long-soft-shaggy- and short-stout-glandular-hairy
Stem square
Leaves opposite, 4-ranked, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, petioled
Inflorescence: panicle; pedicels > bracts; bracts lanceolate, long-tapered
Flower: calyx lobes 5, obtuse to rounded; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, greenish yellow to blackish, tube urn-shaped to spheric, lowest lobe generally recurved; fertile stamens 4, included, anther sacs 1, staminode attached near base of upper lip, appressed to upper side of corolla; style slender, generally reflexed at flower, stigma head-like; nectary at base of ovary, fleshy
Fruit septicidal
Seeds many, oblong-ovoid, ridged
Species in genus: ± 150 species: n temp, especially Eurasia
Etymology: (Latin: scrofula, a disease supposedly cured by some species)


S. californica Cham. & Schldl.


Perennial, minutely glandular
Stem 8–12 dm
Leaf: blade 7–19 cm, ovate to ± triangular, truncate to cordate, acute, crenate to deeply dissected; petiole 3–7 cm
Inflorescence narrow, compact to widely spreading
Flower: calyx 3–4 mm, lobes obtuse to long-tapered; corolla 8–12 mm, upper half brown-maroon, lower half paler or yellowish green, lowest lobe recurved; staminode club-shaped to obovate, brown to light maroon, longer than wide; nectary inconspicuous
Fruit 6–8 mm, conic-ovoid
Ecology: Common. Moist places, roadsides, chaparral
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia

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