Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

PENSTEMON

BEARDTONGUE

Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.

Native

P. monoensis A. Heller

Perennial 7–30 cm; hairs dense, ashy, backward-pointing
Leaves generally cauline, 50–120 mm, ± (widely) lanceolate, entire to toothed
Inflorescence glandular
Flower: calyx 8–11 mm, lobes generally lanceolate (ovate); corolla 15–20 mm, cylindric to narrowly funnel-shaped, glandular outside, pink to red-violet, throat 4–6 mm wide when pressed, floor white to pale pink to white, sparsely hairy; anther sacs 1.1–1.4 mm, dehiscing full length, valves barely spreading; staminode ± included, yellow-hairy
Ecology: Sandy and gravelly washes and hills, sagebrush scrub, Joshua-tree and pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 1300–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: White and Inyo Mountains
Flowering time: Apr–May
Horticultural information: TRY; DFCLT.

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