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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

PENSTEMON

BEARDTONGUE

Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.

Native

P. heterodoxus A. Gray

Perennial 5–65 cm, mat-forming, ± glabrous
Leaves entire, sometimes folded lengthwise; basal many; cauline narrowly lanceolate to ovate, sometimes clasping
Inflorescence glandular
Flower: calyx 2.5–6 mm, lobes narrowly oblong to obovate; corolla 10–16 mm, cylindric to moderately expanded, deep blue-purple, glandular outside, floor yellow-brown-hairy; anther sacs 0.5–1 mm, dehiscing full length but barely spreading; staminode moderately yellow-hairy
Ecology: Montane to alpine slopes, meadows, scree
Elevation: 1100–3900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: Nevada

Native

var. heterodoxus

Plant 5–20 cm
Leaf 5–50 mm, 2–10 mm wide
Inflorescence of 1(2) clusters, glandular
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Montane and subalpine habitats of sp.
Elevation: 2000–3900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Sierra Nevada, n East of Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: Nevada
Flowering time: Jul–Aug
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 &SUN: 15, 16; usually DFCLT.

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bioregional map for PENSTEMON%20heterodoxus%20var.%20heterodoxus being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Penstemon heterodoxus var. heterodoxus
Retrieve dichotomous key for Penstemon
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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