Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.


P. grinnellii Eastw.

Perennial 10–85 cm, ± glabrous
Leaves 50–90 mm, ± (ob)lanceolate, thick, generally folded lengthwise and arching-recurved, subentire to dentate
Inflorescence glandular
Flower: calyx 4.7–8.5 mm, lobes ± ovate; corolla abruptly expanded into throat, 10–18 mm wide when pressed, strongly lined, glandular outside and inside, floor long-hairy; anther sacs 1.6–2.2 mm, dehiscing full length, valves barely spreading; staminode exserted, densely yellow- or golden-hairy
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Chaparral, foothill and pinyon/juniper woodland, montane forest
Elevation: 500–2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Clara Co.), South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California (except South Coast, Channel Islands). Hybrids with P. centranthifolius have been called P. X dubius Davidson.


var. grinnellii

Plant 10–60 cm; young branches light green
Flower: corolla 22–30 mm, whitish, pink- or lavender-tinged
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 900–2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Southwestern California (except South Coast, Channel Islands)
Synonyms: P. hians I.M. Johnst
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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bioregional map for PENSTEMON%20grinnellii%20var.%20grinnellii being generated

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