|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.
Perennial 1085 cm, ± glabrous
Leaves 5090 mm, ± (ob)lanceolate, thick, generally folded lengthwise and arching-recurved, subentire to dentate
Flower: calyx 4.78.5 mm, lobes ± ovate; corolla abruptly expanded into throat, 1018 mm wide when pressed, strongly lined, glandular outside and inside, floor long-hairy; anther sacs 1.62.2 mm, dehiscing full length, valves barely spreading; staminode exserted, densely yellow- or golden-hairy
Ecology: Chaparral, foothill and pinyon/juniper woodland, montane forest
Elevation: 5002700 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Clara Co.), South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California (except South Coast, Channel Islands).
Hybrids with P. centranthifolius have been called P. X dubius Davidson.
Plant 1060 cm; young branches light green
Flower: corolla 2230 mm, whitish, pink- or lavender-tinged
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 9002700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Southwestern California (except South Coast, Channel Islands)
Synonyms: P. hians I.M. Johnst
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.