Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

PARENTUCELLIA

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual, sticky-hairy, generally erect and unbranched in CA
Leaves generally opposite above, sessile
Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like, terminal; bracts leaf-like
Flower: calyx 4-lobed, radial; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip entire or notched, forming hood, lower lip > upper, 3-lobed; stamens 4, included in upper lip, anthers hairy, awned at base
Fruit cylindric
Seeds many, minute, smooth
Species in genus: 4 species: w Eur, Medit, c Asia
Etymology: (Tomaso Parentucelli, early Renaissance librarian to Cosimo de' Medici in Florence; as humanist Pope Nicholas V, 1447–1455, established Vatican library and gardens)

Introduced

P. viscosa (L.) Caruel


Stem < 50 cm
Leaf 20–40 mm, lanceolate, serrate
Flower: calyx 10–16 mm, lobes ± = tube, lanceolate; corolla deciduous, ± 20 mm, yellow, with 2 ridges near lower throat
Fruit slightly > calyx tube, hairy
Ecology: Damp, grassy places, generally near coast
Elevation: generally < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Central Coast, South Coast
Distribution outside California: Oregon; native to Europe

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