Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

ORTHOCARPUS

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to 3-lobed
Inflorescence: spike; bracts entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx 4-lobed, deepest sinus in back; corolla club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, tip closed, enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, generally 3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style and stigma slender
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, generally ± notched
Seeds generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 9 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: straight fruit)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582]
Close to Cordylanthus ; other species formerly placed here are in Castilleja (Owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Horticultural information: TRY with host; DFCLT.

Native

O. imbricatus S. Watson

Plant 10–35 cm, ± puberulent, green
Stem simple or branched above
Leaf 20–50 mm, entire, ± lanceolate, 3-veined
Inflorescence 2–8 cm; bracts differing abruptly from leaves, 10–15 mm, strongly net-veined, with 2 small, lateral lobes from near base, central lobe widely oblong, 5–10 mm wide, distal 1/3 ± rose
Flower: calyx 5–7 mm, hairy, divided 3/4 in back and front, 1/4 on sides; corolla 10–12 mm, nearly hidden by bract, ± puberulent, tube ± rose, beak ± 4 mm, ± 0.5 mm > lower lip, tip strongly hooked, cylindric, lower lip moderately pouched, yellowish, teeth 0.5 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included
Fruit ± 5 mm
Seeds 3–5, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Mtn meadows, grassy or rocky slopes
Elevation: 1600–2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia

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