Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to 3-lobed
Inflorescence: spike; bracts entire to 5-lobed, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx 4-lobed, deepest sinus in back; corolla club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, tip closed, enclosing anthers and style, lower lip shorter, ± 3-pouched, generally 3-toothed; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; style and stigma slender
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, generally ± notched
Seeds generally 8–15, often ± curved, ± keeled, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 9 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: straight fruit)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1992 Syst Bot 17:560–582]
Close to Cordylanthus ; other species formerly placed here are in Castilleja (Owl's-clovers) or Triphysaria (Johnny-tuck).
Horticultural information: TRY with host; DFCLT.


O. cuspidatus Greene

Plant 10–40 cm, puberulent to scabrous, sparsely glandular, becoming ± purple-tinged
Stem simple to much-branched, generally slender
Leaves 10–50 mm, ± lanceolate; lower entire; upper with 3 deep, linear lobes
Inflorescence 2–10 cm, dense; bracts differing abruptly from leaves, 10–20 mm, ± ovate, with 2 narrow, ± basal lobes, central lobe 7–15 mm wide, tip abrupty pointed, uppermost purplish pink on distal 1/3
Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, divided 2/3 in back, 1/2 in front, 1/4 on sides; corolla 10–25 mm, exserted or not, lips purplish pink, densely puberulent, beak nearly straight, 4–10 mm, 0–4 mm > lower lip, lower lip ± pouched, teeth 1–2 mm, triangular, densely puberulent; stigma well included
Fruit 6–8 mm
Seed dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Open slopes or sagebrush
Elevation: 700–3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, north-central US

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