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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.


Noel H. Holmgren

Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Greek: false turtle, from corolla like that of Chelone , turtlehead)
Segregated from Penstemon.


N. nemorosa (Lindl.) Straw

Perennial from caudex; hairs often pointing downward
Stems erect, 3–10 dm
Leaves cauline, opposite, short-petioled; larger blades 4–14 cm, lanceolate to ovate, base cordate or rounded, tip acute to acuminate, margin coarsely toothed
Inflorescence: panicle, glandular, few-flowered; bracts small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal, 5–13 mm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate; corolla 26–33 mm, pink to maroon, lower side often paler, glandular outside, glabrous inside, upper lip 2.4–5 mm, shallowly 2-lobed, lower lip 5–9 mm; filament hairs longest at base, anthers ± 1 mm, long-woolly, anther sacs spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode coarsely bearded, included; nectary a disk; stigma head-like
Fruit 10–15 mm
Seeds flat, widely winged, 2–3.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=30
Ecology: Rocky places in open Douglas-fir, yellow-pine, and mixed-evergreen forests
Elevation: 1000–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, n High Cascade Range
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Horticultural information: TRY.

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