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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

MIMULUS

MONKEYFLOWER

David M. Thompson

Annual to shrub, glabrous to hairy
Stem generally erect
Leaves opposite, generally ± sessile, generally toothed or generally entire, reddish or generally green
Inflorescence: raceme, bracted, or flowers generally 2 per axil
Flower sometimes cleistogamous; calyx generally green, lobes 5, generally << tube, equal or not, generally uppermost largest; corolla generally deciduous, white to red, maroon, purple, gold or yellow, limb width measured at widest point looking into flower, lower lip base sometimes swollen, ± closing mouth, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds; pollen chambers spreading; placentas 2, axile or parietal; stigma lobes generally leaf-like, generally included
Fruit generally ovoid to fusiform, generally upcurved if elongate, generally ± fragile, loculicidal near tip (sometimes hard, indehiscent); chambers 1–2
Seeds many, generally < 1 mm, ovoid, yellowish to dark brown
Species in genus: ± 100 species: w North America, Chile, eastern Asia, s Africa, New Zealand, Australia
Etymology: (Latin: little mime or comic actor, from face-like corolla limb of some)
Reference: [Grant 1924 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 11:99–388]

Native

M. kelloggii (Greene) A. Gray

Annual, 1–31 cm, hairy
Leaf 6–40 mm, elliptic to obovate; lower surface often purplish
Flower: pedicel 2–6 mm; calyx 8–16 mm, puberulent, lobes ± unequal, 0.5–1.5 mm, obtuse; corolla persistent, magenta to red-purple, deepening toward spotted-gold throat, tube-throat 20–45 mm, ± 2 X calyx, gradually wider and funnel-like toward tip, upper lobes 4–5 mm, lower lobes 2–3 mm; lower anthers and stigma exserted; placentas parietal
Fruit 6–12 mm, oblique-cylindric, slightly curved, hard, indehiscent
Chromosomes: n=9
Ecology: Bare areas, unstable or disturbed, steep slopes in scree or soil
Elevation: 50–1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Horticultural information: DRN, IRR, SUN: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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