|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Perennial, glabrous to hairy
Stem prostrate, erect, pendent, or climbing by twining stems or petioles
Leaves generally alternate (lowest opposite on seedlings), entire to irregularly bristly-dentate; veins palmate
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in leaf axils
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube with sac-like extension at base, tube-throat floor generally with 2 longitudinal folds, lower lip base generally not swollen, generally not closing mouth
Fruit ovoid to ± spheric, often oblique; chambers 12, equal or not, each generally dehiscent by 23 pores or irregularly near tip
Seeds many, ± tubercled, pitted, or winged
Species in genus: 20 species: sw US, Mex
Etymology: (C.P. Maurandy, botany professor, Cartagena, Spain, ± 18th century)
Recent taxonomic note: *For alternate taxonomy see Ghebrehiwet et al. 2000 Plant Syst Evol 220:223239; Elisens 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 5:197.
Plant glabrous; stems or petioles twiningSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaf hastate to sagittate, entire
Inflorescence: pedicel 1247 mm
Flower: calyx lobes entire; corolla ± reddish to violet, tube-throat 1317 mm, floor without longitudinal folds, lower lip swollen at base, ± closing throat
Fruit: chambers unequal
Ecology: Desert flats, washes
Elevation: 02600 m.
Bioregional distribution: e Desert Mountains (Providence Mtns, e San Bernardino Co.)
Distribution outside California: to Texas, Mexico
Flowering time: AprMay
Horticultural information: In cultivation.