Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Margriet Wetherwax

Annual, biennial
Stem openly branched
Leaves opposite, entire to finely dentate
Flower: calyx radial, sepals 5, ± free; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip > upper, spreading, 3-lobed, throat with 2 yellow, hairy ridges; fertile stamens 2 (lower stamen pair antherless, forming corolla throat ridges and with free, forked, filament-like tips); stigmas 2, flat
Species in genus: ± 50 species: especially tropical, subtropical
Etymology: (Franz B. von Lindern, German physician, botanist, 1682–1755)


L. dubia (L.) Pennell

Annual, glabrous
Stem < 38 cm, spreading to erect
Leaf 1–37 mm; blade lanceolate to ovate, entire to finely dentate, tapered to round-clasping at base
Inflorescence: pedicels 0.5–28 mm
Flower: sepals < 7 mm, linear; corolla 7–10 mm, white to bluish or lavender
Fruit < or = sepals
Seed length 1.5–3 X width, yellow
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: N.America, S.America
Varieties unclearly differentiated.

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