Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

LINARIA

TOADFLAX

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous
Stem ascending to erect, simple or branched at base
Leaves generally opposite or whorled (or upper alternate), sessile, simple, linear to ovate, generally wider on non-flower shoots, entire to dentate, pinnately veined
Inflorescence: spike or raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate
Flower: calyx lobes 5, deep, ± equal; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower side of tube spurred at base, lower side of throat swollen, ± hairy, ± closing corolla below lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, head-like or lobes 2, flat
Fruit ± spheric, opening by slits into chambers near tip
Seeds many, flat and winged or pyramid-like and ± ridged
Species in genus: ± 100 species: especially Eurasia; many cultivated
Etymology: (Latin: flax, from flax-like leaves of some)
Corolla length includes spur.

Introduced

L. vulgaris Mill.

BUTTER-AND-EGGS

Perennial
Stem 30–100 cm, ascending to erect, simple or not
Leaves crowded, 25–50 mm, linear, glabrous to sparsely soft-shaggy-hairy
Inflorescence: raceme, dense, ± glandular-hairy; pedicel 1–4 mm
Flower: calyx lobes ± 3 mm, unequal; corolla 18–32 mm, yellow, lower lip orange-hairy
Fruit 9–12 mm
Seed 1.5 mm, flat, winged
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Disturbed places
Elevation: generally < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: widely naturalized elsewhere; native to Mediterranean

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