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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

LINARIA

TOADFLAX

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous
Stem ascending to erect, simple or branched at base
Leaves generally opposite or whorled (or upper alternate), sessile, simple, linear to ovate, generally wider on non-flower shoots, entire to dentate, pinnately veined
Inflorescence: spike or raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate
Flower: calyx lobes 5, deep, ± equal; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower side of tube spurred at base, lower side of throat swollen, ± hairy, ± closing corolla below lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, head-like or lobes 2, flat
Fruit ± spheric, opening by slits into chambers near tip
Seeds many, flat and winged or pyramid-like and ± ridged
Species in genus: ± 100 species: especially Eurasia; many cultivated
Etymology: (Latin: flax, from flax-like leaves of some)
Corolla length includes spur.

Introduced

L. maroccana Hook. f.

Annual
Stem < 50 cm
Leaf 20–40 mm, linear
Inflorescence ± glandular-puberulent
Flower: calyx 3–6 mm, lobes lanceolate; corolla 20–38 mm, generally purple, throat swelling with small whitish patch (CVS variably colored, some like L. bipartita ); spur generally ± straight; stigma lobes 2, flat
Fruit 3–5 mm
Seed ± 1 mm, pyramid-like, ridged, black
Chromosomes: 2n=12
Ecology: Roadsides, disturbed places
Elevation: generally < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean
Garden escape and component of "wildflower" seed mixes.

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bioregional map for LINARIA%20maroccana being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Linaria maroccana
Retrieve dichotomous key for Linaria
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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