Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



Margriet Wetherwax

Annual, sometimes partly submersed, with stolons
Leaves basal, erect; stipules generally present
Inflorescence scapose; flower 1
Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes 5, ovate, acute; corolla radial, bell-shaped, lobes 5, upper surfaces sparsely papillate; stamens 4; style generally subterminal, stigmas generally fused, head-like
Fruit elliptic to spheric, chambers 2 below, 1 above
Seeds many, minute
Species in genus: ± 15 species: worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: mud seat, from habitat)


L. aquatica L.

Leaf: petiole 3–10(30) cm, generally clearly differentiated from blade; blade 5–30 mm, flat, spoon-shaped to ovate; stipules 0 or sheathing leaf base, transparent
Inflorescence: pedicels << petioles, spreading in fruit
Flower: calyx lobes 2 X tube; corolla ± 2 mm, white to pinkish, outside sometimes blue, lobes acute; stamens attached at different levels; style 0.2–0.4 mm, stout, ± curved, stigma slightly 2-lobed
Fruit 3–5 mm, elliptic to spheric
Chromosomes: 2n=40
Ecology: Wet, muddy, periodically flooded places
Elevation: < 3200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America, Eurasia
Horticultural information: TRY.

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