|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Subshrub or shrub
Stem wand-like to much-branched
Leaves drought-deciduous, ± opposite or in 3's, generally short-petioled
Inflorescence: panicle or spike-like; bracts small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla not purplish (whitish to red), short-glandular outside, upper lip hooded, lobes short, rounded, external in bud, lower lip rounded, lobes often reflexed; filaments densely nonglandular-hairy at base, anthers small, glabrous, anther sacs generally spreading flat at dehiscence; staminode well developed, glabrous to densely bearded; nectary a disk; stigma head-like
Fruit ovoid, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds many, irregularly angled or ± winged
Species in genus: 7 species: especially CA
Etymology: (David D. Keck, CA botanist, 19031995)
Reference: [Straw 1966 Brittonia 18:8095]
Segregated from Penstemon.
Stem spreading to erect, < 25 dm; young stems glabrous, glaucous, wand-like
Leaves generally whorled in 3's (or opposite); blade 1560 mm, linear to narrowly (ob)lanceolate, acutely tapered at both ends, often folded and curved, margin generally 511-toothed
Inflorescence glabrous to glandular-hairy
Flower: calyx 3.77.2 mm, lobes lanceolate to ovate; corolla 2131 mm, red, tube 1624 mm, throat indistinct, upper lip 5.59.5 mm; anther sacs 0.81.1 mm; staminode densely hairy, included
Ecology: Pinyon/juniper woodland, chaparral, forest
Elevation: 3002700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Tehachapi Mountain Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Flower: calyx 3.85.5 mm
Ecology: Mixed-hardwood forest, chaparral
Elevation: ± 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges
Synonyms: subsp. s. (Munz & I.M. Johnst.) Straw
Horticultural information: TRY.