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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

DOPATRIUM

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual, fleshy, sparsely glandular
Stem erect
Leaves opposite, fleshy
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in axils; lower bracts leaf-like, upper scale-like
Flower: calyx 5-lobed; corolla 2-lipped, yellow or pale blue to lavender, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed (middle lobe > lateral); fertile stamens 2, sterile stamens 2
Fruit spheric, loculicidal
Species in genus: 7 species: Africa, Asia, Australia
Etymology: (Latin: aboriginal name)

Introduced

D. junceum (Roxb.) Buch.-Ham.

Aquatic; upper parts emergent
Stem 10–30 cm
Leaves few, fleshy, 2–5 cm, oblong, obtuse
Inflorescence: upper bracts 0.5–2 mm; pedicels 4–11 mm, sparsely glandular, spreading in fruit; submersed flowers sessile
Flower: calyx 2–5 mm, lobes = tube, obtuse; corolla 4–7 mm, pale blue to lavender, tube slightly > calyx; submersed flowers cleistogamous, 2–3 mm
Fruit ± 4 mm, spheric
Seeds netted
Ecology: Uncommon. Rice fields
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sacramento Valley (Butte Co.)
Distribution outside California: native to Asia, Australia

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