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SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. rigidus (Benth.) Jeps.

Plant 30–150 cm, yellow-green or tinged red, generally ± stiff-hairy, generally not glandular
Leaf 10–40 mm, ± linear, often inrolled
Inflorescence: flowers solitary, generally 5–15 in loose, head-like clusters; outer bract generally 1 per flower, 5–20 mm, generally 3-lobed; inner bract 14–20 mm, often ± bristly
Flower: calyx 10–20 mm, tube 1–2 mm; corolla 12–20 mm, yellowish, lower side marked maroon in U-shape, pouch 3–10 mm wide, white; stamens 4, anther sacs 2
Seed 1.5–2 mm, ± ovoid, wavy-striate, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Many habitats
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except n San Francisco Bay Area), Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Highly variable, intergrading. Many geog races, variably distinct; 5 most discrete (1 in Baja CA) considered subspp.

Native

subsp. setigerus Chuang & Heckard.


Inflorescence 5–13-flowered, 20–30 mm wide; outer bract 10–20 mm, lobed in lower 1/2, densely long-bristly (hairs purple-based), middle lobe ± linear, tip ± wider, notched, thickened, purple
Flower: corolla 13–17 mm
Ecology: Open coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, oak woodland, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Southwestern California (except Western Transverse Ranges)
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Synonyms: C. filifolius Benth. misapplied

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