|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 011-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 12 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Seeds generally 1020, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.
Plant 30150 cm, yellow-green or tinged red, generally ± stiff-hairy, generally not glandular
Leaf 1040 mm, ± linear, often inrolled
Inflorescence: flowers solitary, generally 515 in loose, head-like clusters; outer bract generally 1 per flower, 520 mm, generally 3-lobed; inner bract 1420 mm, often ± bristly
Flower: calyx 1020 mm, tube 12 mm; corolla 1220 mm, yellowish, lower side marked maroon in U-shape, pouch 310 mm wide, white; stamens 4, anther sacs 2
Seed 1.52 mm, ± ovoid, wavy-striate, dark brown
Ecology: Many habitats
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except n San Francisco Bay Area), Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Highly variable, intergrading. Many geog races, variably distinct; 5 most discrete (1 in Baja CA) considered subspp.
Inflorescence 515-flowered, 2040 mm wide; outer bract 1020 mm, lobed in lower half, ± short-bristly, middle lobe linear to oblong, tip tapered or wider and notched
Flower: corolla 1220 mm
Ecology: Open foothill woodland, chaparral margins, coniferous forest
Elevation: 1502300 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except n San Francisco Bay Area), Western Transverse Ranges
Synonyms: C. ferrisianus Pennell; C. littoralis subsp. platycephalus (Pennell) Munz