Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. rigidus (Benth.) Jeps.

Plant 30–150 cm, yellow-green or tinged red, generally ± stiff-hairy, generally not glandular
Leaf 10–40 mm, ± linear, often inrolled
Inflorescence: flowers solitary, generally 5–15 in loose, head-like clusters; outer bract generally 1 per flower, 5–20 mm, generally 3-lobed; inner bract 14–20 mm, often ± bristly
Flower: calyx 10–20 mm, tube 1–2 mm; corolla 12–20 mm, yellowish, lower side marked maroon in U-shape, pouch 3–10 mm wide, white; stamens 4, anther sacs 2
Seed 1.5–2 mm, ± ovoid, wavy-striate, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Many habitats
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Sierra Nevada, Central Western California (except n San Francisco Bay Area), Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Highly variable, intergrading. Many geog races, variably distinct; 5 most discrete (1 in Baja CA) considered subspp.

Native

subsp. littoralis (Ferris) Chuang & Heckard

SEASIDE BIRD'S-BEAK

Plant puberulent to soft-hairy
Inflorescence 5–8-flowered, 10–20 mm wide; outer bract 10–20 mm, lobed in upper 1/2, middle lobe ± lanceolate, tip tapered
Flower: corolla 15–20 mm
Ecology: Dunes
Elevation: 0–200 m.
Bioregional distribution: c Central Coast (s Monterey Bay and Peninsula), s Central Coast (w Santa Barbara Co.)
Synonyms: C. l. (Ferris) J.F. Macbr
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CORDYLANTHUS%20rigidus%20subsp.%20littoralis being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cordylanthus rigidus subsp. littoralis
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cordylanthus
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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