|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 011-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 12 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Seeds generally 1020, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.
Plant 20120 cm, (gray-)green, generally tinged purple, densely puberulent (partly glandular) and long-soft-hairy
Leaf 1040 mm, linear to lanceolate
Inflorescence: flowers solitary, 13 in loose clusters; outer bracts 14, 1520 mm, linear, entire or 3-lobed, tips > 1.5 mm wide, angled to slightly 3-lobed, often ivory-thickened; inner bract 1522 mm, tip abruptly pointed to notched
Flower: calyx 1520 mm; corolla 1520 mm, whitish, yellow-green-tipped, pouch 58 mm wide, ± lightly marked maroon; stamens 4, anther sacs 2
Seed 1.52.5 mm, ± ovoid, finely wavy-striate, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28 (all subspp.)
Ecology: Open foothill woodland, chaparral, serpentine
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area.Variable; close to C. tenuis.
Inflorescence: outer bracts ± linear, 3-lobed in upper 1/3, lobes < 3 mm, tips ± truncate
Flower: corolla = or > calyx and inner bract
Ecology: Open foothill woodland
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills
Synonyms: C. h. (Ferris) J.F. Macbr