Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. nidularius J.T. Howell

MOUNT DIABLO BIRD'S-BEAK

Plant < 15 cm, gray-green, maroon-tinged, glandular-puberulent and long-nonglandular-hairy
Stem decumbent, openly branched
Leaf 10–30 mm, narrowly linear
Inflorescence: flowers solitary, 1–3 in ± dense clusters; outer bracts 2–3, 10–15 mm, 3-lobed near base, segments linear; inner bract ± 15 mm
Flower: calyx 13–16 mm; corolla ± 15 mm, white, lower lip and throat purple-lined; stamens 4, anther sacs 2
Seeds 7–10, 1.5–2 mm, ± ovoid, finely wavy-striate, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology: Dry, open serpentine in chaparral
Elevation: 600–800 m.
Bioregional distribution: ne San Francisco Bay Area (eastern slope Mount Diablo).
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CORDYLANTHUS%20nidularius being generated
 


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