Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. mollis A. Gray

Plant 10–40 cm, gray-green, often tinged purple, glandular-puberulent and long-nonglandular-hairy
Leaf 10–25 mm, ± oblong, entire to 7-lobed
Inflorescence: spike, 20–150 mm; outer bract leaf-like; inner bract 15–25 mm, ± pinnately 3–7-lobed
Flower: calyx 15–20 mm; corolla 15–20 mm, whitish, ± densely tomentose, middle lobe of lower lip erect; stamens 2 (lower pair vestigial), anther sacs 2; style glabrous
Seeds 20–30, 1–3 mm, ± reniform, deeply netted, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28 (both subspp.)
Ecology: Coastal and inland salt marshes
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Great Central Valley, n Central Coast.

Native

subsp. hispidus (Pennell) Chuang & Heckard

HISPID BIRD'S-BEAK

Plant bristly
Stem: branches many, from near base, spreading
Inflorescence generally 20–60 mm
Flower: corolla sparsely tomentose
Seed 1–1.5 mm
Ecology: Saline marshes and flats
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Great Central Valley (Solano, Merced, Kern cos.)
Synonyms: C. h. Pennell
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CORDYLANTHUS%20mollis%20subsp.%20hispidus being generated
 
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cordylanthus mollis subsp. hispidus
Retrieve dichotomous key for Cordylanthus
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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