Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. mollis A. Gray

Plant 10–40 cm, gray-green, often tinged purple, glandular-puberulent and long-nonglandular-hairy
Leaf 10–25 mm, ± oblong, entire to 7-lobed
Inflorescence: spike, 20–150 mm; outer bract leaf-like; inner bract 15–25 mm, ± pinnately 3–7-lobed
Flower: calyx 15–20 mm; corolla 15–20 mm, whitish, ± densely tomentose, middle lobe of lower lip erect; stamens 2 (lower pair vestigial), anther sacs 2; style glabrous
Seeds 20–30, 1–3 mm, ± reniform, deeply netted, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=28 (both subspp.)
Ecology: Coastal and inland salt marshes
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Great Central Valley, n Central Coast.

Native

subsp. hispidus (Pennell) Chuang & Heckard

HISPID BIRD'S-BEAK

Plant bristly
Stem: branches many, from near base, spreading
Inflorescence generally 20–60 mm
Flower: corolla sparsely tomentose
Seed 1–1.5 mm
Ecology: Saline marshes and flats
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: c&s Great Central Valley (Solano, Merced, Kern cos.)
Synonyms: C. h. Pennell
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CORDYLANTHUS%20mollis%20subsp.%20hispidus being generated
 


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