Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CORDYLANTHUS

BIRD'S-BEAK

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual, green root-parasites, generally much-branched
Leaves sessile, 0–11-lobed
Inflorescence: spike (subtended by outer bracts) or flowers solitary (each subtended by outer bracts) but often clustered; outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx)
Flower: calyx generally divided to base in front, sheath-like, tip generally entire or shallowly notched; corolla ± club-shaped, upper lip beak-like, enclosing anthers and style, tip closed, lower lip ± = upper, pouched, middle lobe generally tightly rolled under; stamens generally 4, anther sacs 1–2 per stamen, unequal; style bent near tip, stigma unexpanded, ± exserted downward from closed beak tip
Fruit loculicidal
Seeds generally 10–20, attached at side; coat netted or ridged, tight-fitting
Species in genus: 18 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: club-shaped flower)
[Chuang & Heckard, 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105] Close to Orthocarpus , distinguished by inflorescence and calyx. Generally flowers late summer.

Native

C. maritimus Benth.

Plant 10–40 cm, gray-green, glaucous, often tinged purple and salt-encrusted, generally ± short-hairy
Leaf 5–25 mm, ± linear-lanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: spike, 20–90 mm, many-flowered; outer bract leaf-like; inner bract 15–30 mm
Flower: calyx 15–25 mm; corolla 15–25 mm, white to cream, puberulent, lips pale to brownish or purplish red, middle lobe of lower lip erect; stamens 4, anther sacs 2 (lower pair) or 1 (upper pair)
Seeds 10–40, 1–3 mm, ± reniform, deeply netted, dark brown
Chromosomes: 2n=30
Ecology:
Elevation: Coastal salt marshes (< 10 m), inland alkaline flats (1200–1900 m).
Bioregional distribution: n North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Utah, n Baja California

Native

subsp. palustris (Behr) Chuang & Heckard

POINT REYES BIRD'S-BEAK


Stem: branches 0–few, ascending, < or = central spike
Inflorescence dense; inner bract notched
Seeds 10–20, 2–3 mm
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: n North Coast (Humboldt Co.), n Central Coast (Marin, Sonoma cos.)
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CORDYLANTHUS%20maritimus%20subsp.%20palustris being generated
 


Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Cordylanthus maritimus subsp. palustris
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