|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual, often glandular, sometimes brown-staining
Leaves opposite; lower petioled
Inflorescence bracted, often interrupted; flowers 1many in leaf axils
Flower: calyx 5-lobed; corolla ± pea-like, generally glabrous outside, tube short, throat ± angled to tube, ± pouched on upper side, lips generally ± = throat, upper lobes 2, ± reflexed, generally paler, lower lobes 3, lateral spreading, central lobe keeled, enclosing stamens and style; stamens 4, attached unequally near throat base; staminode gland-like
Fruit septicidal and loculicidal (valves 2-lobed)
Seeds generally few, ± oblong, generally plump; inner surface ± hollow
Species in genus: ± 18 species: North America, especially CA
Etymology: (Zaccheus Collins, 17641831, Philadelphia botanist)
Late-season flowers generally atypically small.
Plant 530 cm
Leaf generally linear to oblong, entire
Inflorescence open, glabrous to finely hairy, nonglandular; pedicels 12(3) per node, generally >> calyx
Flower: calyx lobes sharply acute to long-tapered, generally ciliate, generally >> fruit; corolla generally lavender to purple (white), middle lobe sparsely long-hairy near tip; upper filaments (sparsely) short-spreading-hairy
Fruit spheric; top red-blotched, revealed by spreading calyx lobes
Seeds 412, roundish, flat, generally cupped, winged
Ecology: Grassy disturbed areas, old fields, chaparral
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California.Variable; more study needed.
Flower: corolla 713 mm, throat ± angled to tube, pouch generally ± evident
Ecology: Grassy, sometimes disturbed places, chaparral
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, n Central Western California
Horticultural information: SUN, DRN: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.