Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CASTILLEJA

INDIAN PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Highly variable within and between populations. Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.

Native

C. pruinosa Fernald

Perennial or subshrub 30–80 cm, few-branched, ± gray; hairs generally dense, branched
Leaf 20–80 mm, ± lanceolate; lobes 0–3, tips obtuse
Inflorescence 3–20 cm; bracts 10–25 mm, lobes 0–5, generally bright red to orange-red
Flower: calyx 13–20 mm, divided 1/3–1/2 in back and front, 1/5–1/4 on sides, lobes obtuse to ± acute; corolla 25–32 mm, beak 1–2 X tube, back puberulent, margins reddish, lower lip 1–2 mm, dark green, included or ± exserted; stigma unlobed, club-shaped
Fruit 8–15 mm
Seed 1.5–2 mm; coat deeply netted, loose-fitting, side walls ladder-like, inner walls membranous, splitting
Chromosomes: 2n=48
Ecology: Dry, open serpentine or forest edge
Elevation: 500–2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Plants with ± wider calyx lobes from SnGb that key here have been called C. gleasonii Elmer, Mount Gleason Indian paintbrush, probably a polyploid derivative of C. affinis subsp. a. X C. foliolosa. Highly variable and confusing complex; needs further study.

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