Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Highly variable within and between populations. Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.


C. densiflora (Benth.) Chuang & Heckard

Annual 10–40 cm, subglabrous
Leaf 20–80 mm; lobes 0–3, linear-lanceolate
Inflorescence 3–25 cm, 2.5–4 cm wide; bracts 10–25 mm, tipped white or purplish, lobes 3–5, linear
Flower: calyx 5–20 mm, divided 1/2 in front and on sides, 2/3 in back, lobes ± linear, tip wider; corolla 10–25 mm, pale yellow, pink, or purplish red, beak 5–6 mm, straight, puberulent, lower lip 4–5 mm, pouches 4–6 mm wide, 2–3 mm deep; stigma ± exserted, ± 2-lobed
Fruit 7–10 mm
Seed ± 0.5 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting
Chromosomes: 2n=24 (all subspp.)
Ecology: Grassland
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, s Central Coast, South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Synonyms: Orthocarpus d. Benth
Highly variable; many local forms; more study needed.


subsp. gracilis (Benth.) Chuang & Heckard

Inflorescence rose-purple; bracts < flowers
Flower: corolla exserted, lower lip widened abruptly, pouches generally shorter than deep, teeth generally < 1 mm
Ecology: Grassland
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Synonyms: O. d. var. g. (Benth.) D.D. Keck

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bioregional map for CASTILLEJA%20densiflora%20subsp.%20gracilis being generated
YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Castilleja densiflora subsp. gracilis
Retrieve dichotomous key for Castilleja
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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