Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CASTILLEJA

INDIAN PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Highly variable within and between populations. Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.

Native

C. affinis Hook. & Arn.

Perennial 15–60 cm, few-branched with short axillary shoots, (yellow-)green becoming purplish, ± glabrous to bristly, generally nonglandular
Leaf 30–80 mm, linear to narrowly oblong; lobes 0–5, tips obtuse or rounded
Inflorescence 5–30 cm; bracts 17–25 mm, lobes 0–5, bright red to yellow (generally lighter upward)
Flower: calyx 15–35 mm, divided ± 1/3–1/2 in back and front, ± 1/4–1/3 on sides, long-nonglandular- and short-glandular-hairy, lobes acute to rounded; corolla 18–40 mm, beak ± 1–1.5 X tube, back generally shaggy-hairy, margins reddish or yellowish, lower lip 2–3 mm, green to dark violet; stigma slightly notched
Fruit 10–15 mm
Seed 1.5–2 mm; coat deeply netted, tight-fitting, most walls ladder-like
Ecology: Sea bluffs, dry places in chaparral
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c North Coast, n&s Outer North Coast Ranges, s Inner North Coast Ranges, n Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Many forms, some geog isolated; hybridizes with other species

Native

subsp. neglecta (E.M. Zeile) Chuang & Heckard

TIBURON INDIAN PAINTBRUSH

Plant ± bristly
Leaf 20–40 mm, ± lanceolate; lobes 0–5
Inflorescence 15–25 mm wide, yellow (pinkish)
Flower: calyx 15–20 mm; corolla 18–22 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=72
Ecology: Open serpentine slopes
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Inner North Coast Ranges (Napa Co.), San Francisco Bay Area (Marin, Santa Clara cos.)
Synonyms: C. n. E.M. Zeile
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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bioregional map for CASTILLEJA%20affinis%20subsp.%20neglecta being generated
 
N.B. The distribution depicted here differs from that given in The Jepson Manual (1993)

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Castilleja affinis subsp. neglecta
Retrieve dichotomous key for Castilleja
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
Show other taxa with the same California distribution | Read about bioregions | Get lists of plants in a bioregion
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