This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644666]
Highly variable within and between populations.
Hybridization and polyploidy common;polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.
Perennial 1560 cm, few-branched with short axillary shoots, (yellow-)green becoming purplish, ± glabrous to bristly, generally nonglandular
Leaf 3080 mm, linear to narrowly oblong; lobes 05, tips obtuse or rounded
Inflorescence 530 cm; bracts 1725 mm, lobes 05, bright red to yellow (generally lighter upward)
Flower: calyx 1535 mm, divided ± 1/31/2 in back and front, ± 1/41/3 on sides, long-nonglandular- and short-glandular-hairy, lobes acute to rounded; corolla 1840 mm, beak ± 11.5 X tube, back generally shaggy-hairy, margins reddish or yellowish, lower lip 23 mm, green to dark violet; stigma slightly notched
Fruit 1015 mm
Seed 1.52 mm; coat deeply netted, tight-fitting, most walls ladder-like
Ecology: Sea bluffs, dry places in chaparral
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c North Coast, n&s Outer North Coast Ranges, s Inner North Coast Ranges, n Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Oregon, Baja California
Many forms, some geog isolated; hybridizes with other species
Plant ± bristly
Leaf 3080 mm, ± lanceolate; lobes 05
Inflorescence 3050 mm wide, generally bright red to orange-red (yellow)
Flower: calyx 2035 mm; corolla 2540 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=48,72, 96
Ecology: Chaparral, coastal scrub
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: c North Coast (Mendocino Co.), n Outer North Coast Ranges (Humboldt Co.), s Outer North Coast Ranges, n Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Synonyms: subsp. insularis (Eastw.) Munz
Plants of n CCo with ± fleshy leaves, inflated calyx, and less exserted corolla beak have been called C. inflata Pennell. Dune plants of s CCo, n SCo with some branched hairs may represent past hybridization with diploid C. mollis of n ChI.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|