|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 12 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.
Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644666]
Highly variable within and between populations.
Hybridization and polyploidy common;polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.
Perennial 1050 cm, green or yellowish, long-nonglandular- and short-glandular-hairy or glandular-puberulentSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaf 1560 mm, lanceolate to ovate; lobes 07, tips rounded to acute
Inflorescence 520 cm, open below; bracts 1545 mm, lobes generally 35, bright red to yellow
Flower: calyx 1530 mm, divided ± 1/3 in back and front, 1/51/4 on sides, soft-hairy, lobe tips obtuse to rounded; corolla 2035 mm, beak ± = tube, yellowish green, back puberulent, margins reddish, lower lip 12 mm, dark green, included; stigma slightly 2-lobed
Fruit 813 mm
Seed 12 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Dry, open serpentine, or forest edge
Elevation: 2001700 m.
Bioregional distribution: nw Klamath Ranges
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Synonyms: C. b. Piper
C. h. highly variable, widespread, intergrades with C. angustifolia and C. miniata outside CA; complex needs study.