Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

BACOPA

WATER-HYSSOP

John L. Strother

Annual, ± perennial herb
Stem prostrate to erect, generally < 6 dm
Leaves cauline, opposite, generally < 4 cm, generally narrowly ± obovate to ± round
Inflorescence: flowers 1–3 per leaf axil, sessile or pedicelled
Flower: sepals 4–5; corolla (3–)5-lobed, generally white to pink, throat yellow; stamens (2–)4(–5); ovary subtended by nectary, stigma weakly 2-lobed
Fruit: capsule, spheric, loculicidal or septicidal
Seeds > 30, 0.1–0.3 mm
Species in genus: ± 100 species: tropical, warm temp
Etymology: (Presumed to be aboriginal name)
Reference: [Barrett & Strother 1978 Syst Bot 3:408–419]

Introduced

B. monnieri (L.) Wettst.


Stem prostrate to ascending
Leaf generally 5–25 mm, narrowly ± obovate; vein 1
Inflorescence: pedicel 8–40 mm, generally > leaf; bractlets 2, near tip
Flower: sepals 5, outer 5–7 mm, lanceolate to ovate, not ciliate, corolla 8–10 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=64
Ecology: Wet soil or in shallow water
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sonoran Desert (e Riverside Co.)
Distribution outside California: to s US; native to tropical
Flowering time: All year
Recent alien, probably naturalized.

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