Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

ANTIRRHINUM

SNAPDRAGON

David M. Thompson

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy
Stem vine-like, ascending or erect, often clinging by twining pedicels or branchlets
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally reduced upward; veins pinnate
Inflorescence: raceme or flowers solitary in axils
Flowers often cleistogamous; uppermost calyx lobe generally largest; corolla tube of opening flowers truncate or with rounded sac-like extension at base, lower lip base generally swollen and closing mouth; staminode 0
Fruit ovoid to spheric; chambers generally dehiscent by 1–2 pores near tip, lower chamber generally larger, upper sometimes indehiscent
Seeds many, generally with tubercles or netted ridges
Species in genus: 36 species: w North America, w Medit
Etymology: (Greek: nose-like, from corolla shape)
Reference: [Thompson 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 22:1–142]

Native

A. vexillo-calyculatum Kellogg

Annual, glabrous to hairy below inflorescence (inflorescence generally glandular-hairy)
Stem erect but weak, often clinging to other plants or debris
Inflorescence raceme-like or flowers solitary; pedicels 1–4 mm, lowest subtended by twining branchlets, flower branchlets, or both
Flower: calyx lobes unequal; corolla 8–17 mm, lavender, veins often vaguely darker, throat uniformly narrowed, curved upward at mouth, lower lip lobes conspicuous, thrust forward, erect or spreading
Chromosomes: n=15
Ecology: Gravelly lower slopes of rockslides, disturbed areas, often on serpentine
Elevation: 0–2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, c High Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley (Sutter Buttes), San Francisco Bay Area, n Inner South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Sspp. intergrade in NCoR.

Native

subsp. breweri (A. Gray) D.M. Thomps.


Stem: lower stem hairs all glandular
Inflorescence: branchlets subtending pedicels with 1 leaf at lowest node
Flower: corolla 8–12 mm, some veins dark
Ecology: Habitats and elevations of sp.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, c High Cascade Range
Distribution outside California: sw Oregon
Synonyms: A. b. A. Gray

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bioregional map for ANTIRRHINUM%20vexillo-calyculatum%20subsp.%20breweri being generated
 

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