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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.



David M. Thompson

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy
Stem vine-like, ascending or erect, often clinging by twining pedicels or branchlets
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally reduced upward; veins pinnate
Inflorescence: raceme or flowers solitary in axils
Flowers often cleistogamous; uppermost calyx lobe generally largest; corolla tube of opening flowers truncate or with rounded sac-like extension at base, lower lip base generally swollen and closing mouth; staminode 0
Fruit ovoid to spheric; chambers generally dehiscent by 1–2 pores near tip, lower chamber generally larger, upper sometimes indehiscent
Seeds many, generally with tubercles or netted ridges
Species in genus: 36 species: w North America, w Medit
Etymology: (Greek: nose-like, from corolla shape)
Reference: [Thompson 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 22:1–142]


A. nuttallianum Benth.

Annual, rarely biennial, hairy
Stem erect but weak, often clinging to other plants or debris
Inflorescence: flowers solitary; pedicels generally 2–18 mm, lowest generally subtended by twining branchlets, flower branchlets, or both
Flower: calyx lobes ± equal; corolla of opening flowers 7–12 mm, lavender to blue-purple with 1–2 blue-veined white blotches on lower lip base and gold hairs in mouth (hair color unique in CA)
Chromosomes: n=16
Ecology: Dunes, rocky or disturbed places
Elevation: 0–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Central Coast, South Coast, Channel Islands, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Sspp. hybridize near coast
Horticultural information: TRY.


subsp. nuttallianum

Hairs very dense, very fine, of mixed lengths, tips ± unenlarged
Leaves opposite at lowest 5–8 nodes of main stem
Inflorescence: flowers not present at lowest few 1-lvd nodes; upper pedicels generally > 6 mm
Flower: whitish blotch on lower corolla lip uninterrupted
Seed: ridges entire, longitudinal
Ecology: Rocky areas, generally inland areas, especially burns
Elevation: 0–1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: s South Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: n Baja California

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bioregional map for ANTIRRHINUM%20nuttallianum%20subsp.%20nuttallianum being generated

Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Antirrhinum nuttallianum subsp. nuttallianum
Retrieve dichotomous key for Antirrhinum
Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map
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