Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.


Barbara Ertter

Annual or perennial herb, sometimes monoecious; hairs 0 or partitioned, not glandular
Leaves alternate, odd-1-pinnate; leaflets generally evenly toothed or lobed
Inflorescence: spikes 1–many, head-like; peduncles long
Flowers bisexual (or upper pistillate, lower staminate); hypanthium urn-shaped; bractlets 0; sepals generally 4; petals 0; stamens 0–many; pistils 0–3, ovaries superior, continuous to style at top, stigma generally ± shrub-like, exserted
Fruit: hypanthium hard, 4-angled, enclosing achenes
Species in genus: ± 25 species: n temp, arctic
Etymology: (Latin: blood-absorbing, from styptic properties)
Reference: [Nordberg 1966 Opera Bot 11(2):1–103]


S. occidentalis Nutt.


Annual or biennial, taprooted
Stem generally ascending to erect, generally 10–70 cm
Leaves: basal withered at flower; largest cauline generally 3–12 cm; leaflets 4–7 per side, largest blade 5–20 mm, ± sessile, ± obovate-elliptic, lobes < 15, > 2/3 to midvein, linear
Inflorescence 5–35 mm, 5–10 mm wide, cylindric-ovoid, ± 10–50-flowered
Flower: sepals 2–3 mm, ovate, green; stamens generally 2, filaments thread-like
Fruit 2–4 mm, barely winged; faces wrinkled
Chromosomes: n=7
Ecology: Open, especially disturbed areas
Elevation: 700–1900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana
S. annua (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray (c US) has winged fruit with smooth faces
Horticultural information: TRY.

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