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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.



Barbara Ertter

Annual to shrub; odor resinous or 0
Leaves generally basal, odd-1-pinnate to 1-palmate or 1-ternate; leaflets ± toothed or lobed, terminal generally ± = lateral
Inflorescence: cyme, generally ± open; pedicels generally ± straight
Flower: hypanthium ± shallow; bractlets 5; sepals generally 5, ± triangular; petals generally 5, generally = or > sepals, generally ± widely obcordate, generally yellow; stamens generally 20; pistils generally many, styles generally jointed near tip
Fruit: achene
Species in genus: 200–500 species: n temp
Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of powerful, for reputed medicinal value)
Reference: [Clausen, Keck, & Hiesey 1940 Carn Inst Wash Pub 520:26–195]
P. anglica Laicharding is a waif from cultivated: stem trailing; pedicels 2–8 cm, slender; sepals and petals generally 4; leaflets 3–5.


P. norvegica L.

Annual to short-lived perennial herb from taproot, nonglandular
Stem ascending to erect, 10–70 cm; hairs spreading, sparse and long below, denser and shorter above
Leaves generally ternate; basal often withered or fallen in flower; cauline generally 3–12 cm, leaflets generally 3, 15–50 mm, oblanceolate, toothed ± 1/3 to midvein, ± hairy
Inflorescence several–many-flowered
Flower: hypanthium 4–10 mm wide; petals 3–4 mm, < sepals; stamens 15–20, filaments 0.5–2 mm, anthers ± 0.3 mm; styles ± 0.8 mm, tapered from rough-thickened base
Fruit ± 1 mm, veined, light brown
Chromosomes: n=28,35; 2n=56,63,70
Ecology: Moist, disturbed areas
Elevation: < 2300 m.
Bioregional distribution: c High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: N.America, native to Eurasia
Synonyms: subsp. monspeliensis (L.) Asch. & Graebn

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